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Doctrinal Balance in Light of the Judgment Seat of Christ With Emphasis on Women in Ministry

Updated: Feb 29


Introduction

Contemporary study of the judgment seat of Christ stems from two passages which figuratively mention the term, bema, as found in Romans 14:10 and 2 Corinthians 5:10,[1] with the focus of the event placed upon lost or granted rewards for works done during a believer’s lifetime on earth (1 Cor 3:14). However, historical doctrine has emphasized the somber umbrella concept of judgment for all, which is found throughout Scripture in a spectrum which spans from severe warning to overcoming victory (Matt 7:21-23; 1 Cor 1:7-8; 1 Thess 3:12-13; Col 3:24-25; 1 Pet 4:4-6; Rev 2:11, 11:18, 20:11-15; Dan 12:2). Both of these views have biblical merit. Neither should be overlooked, as illustrated by Christ’s teaching (e.g. John 15:1-11). Correct doctrine is balanced doctrine which researches and relays all dichotomies, involves the whole counsel of the Word of God, and points to Christ as the ultimate example, solution, and fulfillment of both life and Scripture (John 1:1-4; 14:6; Luke 24:44). Jesus’ solution to the use of partial scripture to defeat kingdom advancement was, “it is written” (Matt 4:4; Acts 20:27).

In light of the bema, women called by God into ministry are presented with unique pressures in that they are responsible for the whole counsel of the Word, and inner-dwelt with the same Holy Spirit, yet are somewhat societally confined within denominational doctrines which focus heavily upon 1 Timothy 2:11-12. The unique perplexities presented by Paul to women called into ministry are also alleviated by Paul throughout his epistles in that he balances the doctrinal dichotomy of women in ministry himself (e.g. 1 Cor 12:4-6; Gal 3:28).

The purpose of this paper is not to debate between contemporary and historical viewpoints of judgment, nor to argue the specific status of women in ministry, but to offer a comparative analysis of the two doctrines with regard to the ramifications of imbalances which stem from placing excessive weight on a select passage versus all of Scripture. The goal of this study is to provide a balanced exegetical and doctrinal range regarding judgment and women in Christian service in light of the bema. This paper will argue that imbalanced theological doctrines, which thwart the whole counsel of the Word of God, minimize the authentic Christian works which are to be evaluated at the judgment seat of Christ.

Doctrinal Imbalances on Christian Judgment

The bema, or judgment seat of Christ (2 Cor 5:10) and/or God (Rom 14:10), is both a literal and figurative term regarding an event to take place in the heavenly realm.[3] S. E. McClelland explains:

[B]ema; literally means a ‘step,’ referring to the platform upon which the civil magistrate sat during judicial proceedings; [f]iguratively the term found use as a picture of the final confrontation between man and Jesus Christ where an accounting would be held for the individual’s earthly deeds.[4]

The concept of bema has strong spiritual connotations as it is where the Christian stands directly before Christ to give an account of his or her life (Rom 14:12). Bema may be described as, “one stride, or 2.5 feet; an elevated [speaking] platform; a judicial bench, tribunal, or judge’s seat; or a seat [throne] for a king.”[5]

For we must all appear before the judgment seat [βήματος] of Christ so that each one may receive what is due for what he has done in the body, whether good or evil (2 Cor 5:10).

Why do you pass judgment on your brother? Or you, why do you despise your brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat [βήματι] of God…so then each of us will give an account of himself to God (Rom 14:10, 12).

The origin of bema is the same as “basis,” or baino, which means to walk.[6] Essentially, the idea conveyed by bema is that the Christian’s entire walk of faith ought to be based upon this last step. Each one is to be found standing less than one meter’s distance from the face, or the feet, of the omniscient and omnipotent Christ, who has been given authority to judge (John 5:24-27).[7] With the believer’s focus on the bema, obedience to the Lord’s commands (John 14:15) and to his voice (Rev 2:7, 11, 17, 29; 3:6, 13, 22) while on the earth, above those of other spirits, men, temptations or distractions, is certainly increased (1 John 4:1-6; Gal 1:10; Matt 6:13; 1 Cor 9:23-25). In the use of bema, Paul’s intention is to help Christians focus on that day where they will each give an account of oneself to the Lord, and he wishes to minimize the judgment of others (Rom 14:4-12; 2 Cor 5:7-21).

Doctrinally, interpretations heavily reliant upon the “general judgment” (Dan 12:2) or purification (1 Cor 3:15) passages have ranged from the Roman Catholic teaching of purgatory to similar Protestant versions of the heavenly purging of sin, including the idea of sending Christians into “outer darkness for one thousand years,”[8] all of which stand in conflict with the “general doctrine of justification by faith that no condemnation is possible for one who is in Christ”[9] (John 5:28-29; Matt 25:31-46; Rom 8:1; 1 John 4:10). Further, Samuel Hoyt offers that Paul does not use the term kriterion (court of justice), which would be more fitting than the term bema if he had intended to convey the strict notion of “punishment or condemnation” for Christians.[10] However, the general, biblical concept is still Christ, or God, as judge (krites), which is associated with judgment, decision and “a separating” (krisis/Eng. crisis) of life from death, or good from evil (Heb 12:23; Jas 4:12, 5:9; Acts 10:42, 24:10; 2 Tim 4:8; Eph 5:26-27; 1 John 3:2-3; Deut 30:19).[11]

Proponents of “heavenly punishment” for Christians cite 1 Corinthians 3:15, which states, “If anyone’s work is burned up, he will suffer loss, though he himself will be saved, but only as through fire.”[12] This verse suggests the vain work will be burned, but the person will be saved. Further, “as through fire,” or hos, suggests a simile, inferring that the fire is something other than an outer darkness or hell, such as an unveiling in the “decision on the day of the Parousia [which] will show…if anyone has taught what is excellent and imperishable, that, as belonging to the divine, will stand this decision and survive.”[13] Fire, or puros, is associated with judgment in the aforementioned passage, yet “a distinction is to be made between the baptism of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost and the ‘fire’ of divine retribution.”[14] In other words, puros, for the believing Christian, is mainly indicative of trial as a means of purification guided by the Holy Spirit, rather than the lake of fire, or a millennial or eternal separation from God (Rev 20:14).[15] This divine relationship and purification process seems to find its crescendo at the judgment seat of Christ, where the believer meets the Holy God and would hope to hear, “Well done, My good and faithful servant” (Matt 25:21).[16] Tribulation (thlipsis; pressure, anxiety, trauma), according to John 16:33, takes place in the world rather than in heaven and, therefore, temporarily rather than eternally, as Jesus has overcome, yet doctrine which proponents Christian punishment after death seems to reverse this principle in the realms of time, location, and divine sanctification (2 Cor 3:17-18; Col 1:10; Rom 12:2; 2 Pet 1:8).[17]

The emergence of doctrinal teachings regarding heavenly punishment for Christians may have been an attempt to thwart the issue of “wicked Christians” in the church—those professing faith in Christ, yet living in habitual sin—by fostering the fear of God via retribution (Gal 6:7; Deut 32:35; Rom 12:17-19).[18] In light of 1 John 3:9 and James 4:12, the Lord will decide all cases, as God alone is judge and knows who is truly saved versus who is not (1 Sam 16:7; Matt 7:21-23), yet shepherds of the flock are placed in a position to correct (1 Tim 5:20; Matt 28:20). However, the doctrine of purification after death trespasses upon the justification passages if no distinction is allowed for the true Christian verses the unsaved soul who merely professes Christianity under false pretenses, choosing to persist in sin and unrepentance.[19] Further, if the wicked Christian is not a true Christian (i.e., is unsaved), the concept of punishment which takes place in an afterlife they do not readily believe in may hold little sway for earthly correction, yet the same doctrine may foster false fear of a “heavenly punishment” in those who are true, sincere believers (Matt 7:21-23; 1 John 4:18; Rom 8:27). Christians are to come boldly to the throne of grace (Heb 4:14-16; KJV). Hoyt offers, “[1 John 2:28] suggests that those who have faithfully abided in Christ will have boldness (παρρησίαν) at His appearing. The term παρρησίαν denotes courage, confidence, boldness, and fearlessness, especially in the presence of persons of high rank.”[20] Finally, the implications of this doctrine (which emphasizes Christians waiting to be cleansed after death) may unintentionally override focus on purification trials and confuse divine processes of maturity toward holiness—both of which happen during one’s time on earth, as well as present the idea of a God who administers divine retributive justice regardless of the propitiation of Christ’s sacrifice (Heb 9:14, 12:7-11; Jas 4:8; Rom 8:34).

God is a holy and just God, yet his mercy prevails in the sacrificial Lamb, Jesus Christ (John 3:16). L. Ann Jervis states:

Paul speaks of a clearly retributive judgment in Romans 2:5-6…of those who live in the reality under God’s wrath. For such people, God will render to each person according to the deeds (kata ta erga). In 2:16…Paul describes God’s judgment as kata to euangelion (according to the Gospel)…[where] “we will all stand in front of the judgment seat of God…and give an account… The eschatological judgment that believers can expect is judgment according to a gospel that is distinctly non-retributive.[21]

With regard to the bema, both Christ (2 Cor 5:10) and God (Rom 14:10) are listed as judge (John 14:6). Lewis Chafer states, “Christ is the propitiation (hilasterion, mercy seat, throne of grace) because He is the meeting place…between a holy God and a sinful but believing human being.”[22] H. Framer Smith concurs, “[Christ] has come between the God who cannot look upon sin with favor and ourselves whose Righteousness He becomes.”[23] Receiving Christ as the mercy seat is paramount when preparing for the judgment seat, and this covering and assurance is accessible through faith (Rom 3:21-26). Therefore, Heaven is not a place of punishment, but of eternal joy for the believer (John 3:16; Rev 7:17, 21:4).

Hoyt states that Christian “salvation is eternally secure because full and adequate payment for…sins has already been efficaciously made by Christ.”[24] While salvation for the Christian cannot be lost at the judgment seat, rewards for faithful service and stewardship can be (2 Cor 5:10). Christ is the ultimate reward, yet service is done for him on earth by those who are loyal (Matt 20:1-16, 25:14-30; Luke 19:11-27). Doctrinal imbalance tends to swing from one extreme to the next, in this case, from incorrect heavenly punishment to the judgment seat simply being a place to receive awards. Hoyt explains:

Some Bible scholars view the judgment seat as a place of intense sorrow, a place of terror, and a place where Christ will display all the believer’s sins (or at least those unconfessed) before the entire resurrected and raptured church. There are those who go even further by stating that Christians must in some way experience some sort of suffering… At the other end of the spectrum is another group which…views this event as an awards ceremony. There are also Bible scholars who espouse a mediating position between these two views. They maintain the seriousness of the examination yet emphasize the commendation aspect. Emphasis is placed on the fact that each Christian must give an account of his life before the omniscient and holy Christ.[25]

Studies within the last century have attempted to correct doctrinal errors regarding Christian punishment after death by distinguishing between the Christian and non-believer judgments (Great White Throne; Rev 20:5, 7) and refuting the general judgment doctrines and creeds prevalent within the traditional church.[26] However, the danger with striping attention away from the general judgment passages is to thwart the whole counsel of the Word of God in another manner, which may inadvertently increase the postmodern viewpoint of libertarianism within the church (i.e., license to sin) or a casual attitude regarding Christian judgment as a “commencement ceremony.”[27]

The potential doctrinal imbalances described above are primarily founded in one or two select Pauline passages, rather than in the whole counsel of God. In a sense, they try to “fly with one wing.”[28] If either viewpoint is taken to extreme, this may foster either a light attitude (ceremonial) or excessive fear (Christian punishment) toward the judgment seat, both of which may result in loss of motivation to do the works of God during one’s time on earth. Balanced doctrine teaches the full spectrum of God as judge, with reward (or loss of rewards) for Christians through the propitiation and justification of Christ, and is primarily based upon Christ’s teachings (Luke 12:51; Matt 10:28; John 6:39). Adequate admonishments for sin and rebellion are to be communicated for both those who profess Christianity by church attendance, but are not personally saved, as well as for those who are saved (Matt 7:21). For example, Matthew 25:31-46 does not strictly define who is meant by the “sheep and goats” (believers/unbelievers; obedient believers/disobedient believers).[29] Rather than considering this a theological problem, the intentional ambiguity within the figurative language is a teaching tool built within the infallible Word which balances justification with inner truth. Hoyt expounds:

The cause of shame at the judgment seat of Christ apparently arises from the believer’s own realization of sin, unfaithfulness, and neglected opportunities… The Bible suggests that there will be shame at the judgment seat of Christ…depending on the measure of unfaithfulness of each individual believer. Therefore, it should be each believer’s impelling desire to be well-pleasing to the Lord in all things. [30]

In John 15:1-11, Jesus describes judgment along with the process of pruning, kathairo (cleansing/purification),[31] in which the believer is brought through purification trial in order to produce the fruit which will likely be reward-worthy at the bema. The balance of spiritual conviction, along with promise of reward, increases obedience and motivates good works (fruit). These parables proponent earthly purification (sanctification) as a means necessary to increase Christian production of Spirit-led works in anticipation of the paramount bema event (Rom 14:10; 2 Cor 5:10). Rather than disregard the negative or positive aspects of Christian judgment, balanced bema doctrine alleviates the extreme results of either despondency spawned in fear or flippancy due to irreverence (Rev 19:11; Heb 10:30; Rom 2:16; Acts 10:42; John 3:18; 1 Sam 16:7).

The Bema and Women in Ministry

Women are not excluded from the bema event, as Paul states, “we must all appear…each one (hekastos; individually)” (2 Cor 5:10; Is 45:6; Acts 4:12).[32] The doctrinal and societal implications regarding the status of women in ministry produce a pendulum effect,[33] similar to the judgment seat doctrines explained above, wherein those heavily reliant upon 1 Timothy 2:11-12 do so at the expense of the remainder of the Pauline epistles, as well as the whole counsel of Scripture—the responsibilities of which are not removed from women who must stand before Christ and give an account of their life (1 Cor 12-14; Rom 12:3-8; Eph 4:11-12; Acts 2:17-18; 1 Pet 4:11). Christ chose twelve male apostles and reverence of authority is prevalent throughout Scripture, yet this cannot be used as a reason for women to deny service of the kingdom (Matt 10:2). Paul answers this conflict in several differing passages, imploring those granted gifts to use them confidently in love (1 Cor 12; Gal 1:10; 1 Thess 2:4; Rom 12:6, 16:1, 7; Phil 4:2). Kevin Giles states, “Paul’s teaching on the ministry of the body of Christ presupposes that the Spirit can bestow the same gifts of ministry on men and women.”[34] Hoyt explains the concept of self-judgment outlined in 1 Corinthians 11:31:

Although the believer is not forensically punished for his sin, nevertheless, there will be temporal consequences as well as eternal consequences. Present unconfessed sin results in a loss of desire for service as one is out of experiential fellowship with God. Unconfessed sin also results in loss of power in the believer’s life since the sin grieves the Holy Spirit. Furthermore, unconfessed sin results in loss of opportunity since the sinning believer is not living according to the will of God.[35]

In consideration of a refusal or hesitation to answer the authentic call to minister, whether male or female, each individual would need to determine if the sin is disobedience to the will of God (Exod 20:3; Josh 24:15; Rom 14:23; Gal 6:10).

John 7:53-8:11 portrays a woman caught in adultery who inevitably ends up at the center of court, standing in front of Jesus; each of her accusers has gone and she is left accountable to face her Master only, who is merciful. Though this woman sinned, Christ became both her judgment seat and her mercy seat (John 8:11). This account echoes the judgment seat event in that each individual will be standing alone to give an account directly to Christ—there will be no other person to judge or to cover (2 Cor 5:10; Rom 14; 10-12). Robert Wilkin states:

There really are no secrets with God. Our lives are open books to Him. The heart of eschatology is accountability. May we live moment by moment in such a way that we will hear Him say, “Well done, good servant.”[36]

The term “woman” used in John 8, is gune, which is the same term used in regard to the church in Revelation. Paul Tanner expounds:

Who is the “bride”? It is rather interesting that both the NASB and NIV translations use the term “bride” in Rev 19:7, because this is not a word normally translated “bride.” The Greek word is [gune] which is normally translated “woman” or “wife.” For a word that occurs close to two-hundred times in the NT, it seems odd that this is the only time it is translated “bride.” ...[T]his [bride] is a city in which only the redeemed can enter…[37]

The bride clothed in fine linen, bright and clean, has been redeemed as Christ’s true church, or the New Jerusalem (holy city) where “nothing unclean can enter,” as opposed to the fallen city of Babylon whose false linen was “worldly splendor and luxury.”[38] This illustrates Christ’s power to judge on a universal scale, which will be followed by the celebratory wedding feast and eternal marriage union for those who were faithful.[39] Overcoming entails earthly suffering, which is used as purification, however, the churches and individuals who exhibit faithfulness to Christ will receive mercy and splendid rewards (Rev 2:7, 11, 17, 26-28; 3:5, 12, 21).

Balanced doctrine regarding judgment for Christians dispels the fear of retribution for a believer. While God is a God of justice, clearly Christ paid the penalty for sin. To fear judgment of God in the afterlife can perceptually or psychologically thwart the saving grace offered by Christ’s sacrifice for all who believe (1 John 4:18). Walvoord describes a more effective view of fear: “[Paul] speaks of “knowing therefore the fear of the Lord” (2 Cor 5:11)…This fear is of the possibility that his life will be revealed as one wasted and spent in selfishness rather than in devotion and complete obedience to Christ.”[40] The bema event is of a vast magnitude where:

The believer’s life will be examined and evaluated in regard to his faithfulness as a steward of the abilities and opportunities which God had entrusted to him…Not only is the purpose of this event future manifestation, but it also should serve as present motivation for contemporary godly living.[41]

Revelation 21:8 warns against cowardice and those called into ministry will each have to determine if gender would preside over a call to communicate the Gospel (Luke 18:1; John 14:27; 2 Tim 1:7, AMPC). The Lord sees the heart (1 Sam 16:7).

Conclusion

Interpretations of Christian punishment after death trespass against the biblical doctrine of justification for true believers and tend to thwart focus on the fruitful use of earthly purification by teaching its delay into the afterlife.[42] Recent enlightening study, from Samuel Hoyt and others, has refuted the church’s traditional view of a general judgment by yielding definitive boundaries between the judgment of non-believers (Great White Throne; Rev 20:5, 7) and that of believing Christians (Rom 8:1) as well as more descriptive theories regarding differing eschatological timelines (Rev 20:4).[43] While this work is invaluable to the church’s preservation of the doctrine of justification, care should be taken not to tilt the interpretive scales too far into a ceremonial view regarding the bema, as such an attitude could minimize the serious responsibility of the good works to be done on earth (Matt 28:16-20; Rom 12:1-8).

This paper has explored two theological doctrines which, when misapplied, tend to minimize the authentic Christian works the church should be fostering. Extreme doctrinal interpretations tend to be based upon one or two passages rather than the overarching spirit of the Word. For example, purgatory-effect proponents (both Catholic and Protestant) often cite 1 Corinthians 3:15 for support at the expense of the justification passages (Rom 8:1, 3:25; John 1:29; 1 John 4:10).[44] In turn, those who proponent rewards at the judgment seat tend to rely heavily on the bema passages (Rom 14:10; 2 Cor 5:10) at the expense of the sobering passages of God as holy judge (Rev 20:4, 12, 13; Dan 12:2). It is the balance of the bema rewards, with serious reverence for meeting the Holy God face-to-face, which produces doctrinal effectiveness and promotes the Christian fruit to be analyzed on judgment day (2 Cor 5:10; John 15:1-11; Job 31:37; Rom 14:12; Heb 4:13; 1 Pet 4:5).

While respect for God-granted order must be present, the pressures imposed of doctrinal conflict regarding gender may be a hindrance to kingdom advancement. Dogmatic and cultural imbalances produce purification trials within each individual, who then must choose actions which will be judged “whether good or evil” (2 Cor 5:10; Deut 30:19). Both women and men are responsible to serve the same triune God, with the same knowledge of the Word and the same Holy Spirit within, in the light of the upcoming bema event as earthly gender does not constitute a waiver. Moltmann states, “Our lives are shaped in part by our expectations for the future—our hope and our anxieties.”[45] Overcomers are blessed with fitting rewards and the true church will be married to Christ to form one family (Rev 2:7, 11, 17, 26-28; 3:5, 12, 21; John 17).

Bibliography

Chafer, Lewis Sperry. “The Savior: Things Accomplished by Christ in His Sufferings and Death.” Bibliotheca Sacra 103, no. 412 (October 1946): 391-409. Accessed June 19, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Friberg, Timothy, Barbara Friberg and Neva Miller. Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament. Victoria: Trafford, 2005.

Giles, Kevin. “The Biblical Case for Women in Leadership.” Priscilla Papers 17, no. 3 (Summer 2003): 24-25. Accessed June 20, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Graves, David E. “Jesus Speaks to Seven of His Churches, Part 2.” Bible and Spade 23, no. 3 (Summer 2010): 66-72. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Hamilton, James M. “Suffering in Revelation: The Fulfillment of the Messianic Woes.” Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 17, no. 4 (Winter 2013): 34-45. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Hoyt, Samuel L. The Judgment Seat of Christ: A Biblical and Theological Study. Duluth: Grace Gospel, 2015.

________. “The Judgment Seat of Christ in Theological Perspective, Part One: The Judgment Seat of Christ and Unconfessed Sins.” Bibliotheca Sacra 137, no. 545 (January 1980): 32-39. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

________. “The Judgment Seat of Christ in Theological Perspective, Part Two: The Negative Aspects of the Christian’s Judgment.” Bibliotheca Sacra 137, no. 546 (April 1980): 125-131. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

________. “Rewards and the Judgment Seat of Christ.” Michigan Theological Journal 3, no. 2 (Fall 1992): 175-189. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Jervis, L. Ann. “Divine Retribution in Romans.” Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 69, no. 3 (2015): 323-337. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

MacLeod, David J. “The First ‘Last Thing’: The Second Coming of Christ (Rev. 19:11-16).” Bibliotheca Sacra 156, no. 622 (April 1999): 203-220. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

McClelland, S. E. “Judgment Seat.” In Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, 2nd ed., 640. Edited by Walter A. Elwell. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001.

Meyer, Heinrich August Wilhelm. “Meyer’s New Testament Commentary.” Biblehub.com. Accessed June 19, 2018. http://biblehub.com/commentaries/meyer/1_corinthians/3.htm.

Michel, Walter L. “Job’s Real Friend: Elihu.” Criterion 21 (Spring 1982): 32. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Moltmann, Jurgen. “The Final Judgment: Sunrise of Christ’s Liberating Justice.” Anglican Theological Review 89, no. 4 (Fall 2007): 565-576. Accessed June 20, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

NAS Exhaustive Concordance. “939, Basis.” Biblehub.com. Accessed June 20, 2018. http://biblehub.com/greek/939.htm.

Pond, Eugene W. “The Background and Timing of the Judgment of the Sheep and Goats.” Bibliotheca Sacra 159, no. 634 (April 2002): 201-220. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Schreiner, Thomas R. “Sermon: A Building from God—2 Corinthians 5:1-10.” Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 19, no. 3 (Fall 2015): 121-129. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Smith, H. Framer. “Is Jesus the Believer’s Mercy Seat?” Bibliotheca Sacra 102, no. 407 (July 1945): 291-299. Accessed June 19, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Strong’s Concordance. “2508, Kathairo.” Biblehub.com. Accessed June 20, 2018. http://biblehub.com/greek/2508.htm.

Tanner, Paul J. “The ‘Marriage Supper of the Lamb’ in Rev 19:6-10: Implications for the Judgment Seat of Christ.” Trinity Journal 26, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 47-68. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Thayer’s Greek Lexicon. Biblehub.com. Accessed June 19, 2018. http://biblehub.com.

Thomas, Robert L. “Jesus’ View of Eternal Punishment.” Masters Seminary Journal 9, no. 2 (Fall 1998): 147-167. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2013.

VanDrunen, David. “Inaugural Lecture: The Two Kingdoms and the ‘Ordo Salutis’: Life Beyond Judgment and the Question of a Dual Ethic.” Westminster Theological Journal 70, no. 2 (Fall 2008): 207-224. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Vine, W. E., Merrill F. Unger, and William White, Jr. Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1996.

Walvoord, John F. “The Future Work of Christ Part II: The Church in Heaven.” Bibliotheca Sacra 123, no. 490 (April 1966): 99-103. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Waters, Larry J. “Elihu’s Theology and His View of Suffering.” Bibliotheca Sacra 156, no. 622 (April 1999): 143-159. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Wilkin, Bob. “The Day is the Judgment Seat of Christ.” Journal of the Grace Evangelical Society 20, no. 39 (Autumn 2007): 3-15. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Wilkin, Robert N. “Will the Bad Deeds of Believers be Considered at the Judgment Seat of Christ?” Journal of the Grace Evangelical Society 28, no. 54 (Spring 2015): 17-36. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

Williams, Jarvis. “Violent Atonement in Romans: The Foundation of Paul’s Soteriology.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 53, no. 3 (September 2010): 579-599. Accessed June 18, 2018. http://www.liberty.edu.

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[1] Unless otherwise noted, all biblical passages referenced are in the English Standard Version (ESV), ESV Study Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008).

[3] Samuel L. Hoyt, The Judgment Seat of Christ: A Biblical and Theological Study (Duluth: Grace Gospel, 2015), 54.

[4] S. E. McClelland, “Judgment Seat,” in Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, 2nd ed., ed. Walter A. Elwell (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001), 640.

[5] Timothy Friberg, Barbara Friberg and Neva Miller, Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament (Victoria: Trafford, 2005), 90.

[6] NAS Exhaustive Concordance, “939, Basis,” Biblehub.com, accessed June 20, 2018, http://biblehub.com/greek/939.htm.

[7] Friberg, Friberg and Miller, Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament, 90.

[8] Hoyt, The Judgment Seat of Christ, 77, 82-84. Author’s Note: Hoyt cites: George W. Dollar, “Rewards,” a tape-recorded sermon preached at Faith Baptist Church, La Crosse, WI, n. d.

[9] John F. Walvoord, “The Future Work of Christ Part II: The Church in Heaven,” Bibliotheca Sacra 123, no. 490 (April 1966): 99, accessed June 18, 2018, http://www.liberty.edu. Author’s Note: emphasis, mine.

[10] Hoyt, The Judgment Seat of Christ, 45.

[11] W. E. Vine, Merrill F. Unger, and William White, Jr., Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1996), 336-337.

[12] Samuel L. Hoyt, “The Judgment Seat of Christ in Theological Perspective, Part Two: The Negative Aspects of the Christian’s Judgment,” Bibliotheca Sacra 137, no. 546 (April 1980): 125-131, accessed June 18, 2018, http://www.liberty.edu.

[13] Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, “Meyer’s New Testament Commentary,” Biblehub.com, accessed June 19, 2018, http://biblehub.com/commentaries/meyer/1_corinthians/3.htm.

[14] Vine, Unger, and White, Jr., Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary, 239.

[15] Friberg, Friberg and Miller, Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament, 339.

[16] Robert N. Wilkin, “Will the Bad Deeds of Believers be Considered at the Judgment Seat of Christ?” Journal of the Grace Evangelical Society 28, no. 54 (Spring 2015): 17-36, accessed June 18, 2018, http://www.liberty.edu.

[17] Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, Biblehub.com, accessed June 19, 2018, http://biblehub.com/greek/2347.htm.

[18] Hoyt, The Judgment Seat of Christ, 83.

[19] Hoyt, The Judgment Seat of Christ, 78.

[20] Hoyt, “The Judgment Seat of Christ in Theological Perspective, Part Two.”

[21] L. Ann Jervis, “Divine Retribution in Romans,” Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 69, no. 3 (2015): 323-337, accessed June 18, 2018, http://www.liberty.edu.

[22] Lewis Sperry Chafer, “The Savior: Things Accomplished by Christ in His Sufferings and Death,” Bibliotheca Sacra 103, no. 412 (October 1946): 391-409, accessed June 19, 2018, http://www.liberty.edu.

[23] H. Framer Smith, “Is Jesus the Believer’s Mercy Seat?” Bibliotheca Sacra 102, no. 407 (July 1945): 291-299, accessed June 19, 2018, http://www.liberty.edu.

[24] Hoyt, The Judgment Seat of Christ, 76.

[25] Hoyt, The Judgment Seat of Christ, 14-15.

[26] Ibid, 18-19.

[27] Hoyt, “The Judgment Seat of Christ in Theological Perspective, Part Two.”

[28] David J. MacLeod, “The First ‘Last Thing’: The Second Coming of Christ (Rev. 19:11-16),” Bibliotheca Sacra 156, no. 622 (April 1999): 203-220, accessed June 18, 2018, http://www.liberty.edu.

[29] Eugene W. Pond, “The Background and Timing of the Judgment of the Sheep and Goats,” Bibliotheca Sacra 159, no. 634 (April 2002): 201-220, accessed June 18, 2018, http://www.liberty.edu.

[30] Hoyt, “The Judgment Seat of Christ in Theological Perspective, Part Two.”

[31] Strong’s Concordance, “2508, Kathairo,” Biblehub.com, accessed June 20, 2018, http://biblehub.com/greek/2508.htm.

[32] Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, “Strongs NT 1538,” Biblehub.com, accessed June 20, 2018, http://biblehub.com/greek/1538.htm.

[33] Author’s Note: e.g., sexism vs. feminism theological arguments.

[34] Kevin Giles, “The Biblical Case for Women in Leadership,” Priscilla Papers 17, no. 3 (Summer 2003): 24-25, accessed June 20, 2018, http://www.liberty.edu.

[35] Hoyt, “Rewards and the Judgment Seat of Christ.”

[36] Wilkin, “Will the Bad Deeds of Believers be Considered..?”

[37] Paul J. Tanner, “The ‘Marriage Supper of the Lamb’ in Rev 19:6-10: Implications for the Judgment Seat of Christ,” Trinity Journal 26, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 47-68.

[38] Ibid.

[39] Tanner, “The ‘Marriage Supper of the Lamb.”

[40] Walvoord, “The Future Work of Christ Part II.”

[41] Samuel Hoyt, “Rewards and the Judgment Seat of Christ,” Michigan Theological Journal 3, no. 2 (Fall 1992): 175-189, accessed June 18, 2018, http://www.liberty.edu.

[42] Hoyt, “Rewards and the Judgment Seat of Christ,” 56.

[43] Hoyt, “Rewards and the Judgment Seat of Christ,” 56.

[44] Hoyt, The Judgment Seat of Christ, 82.

[45] Jurgen, Moltmann, “The Final Judgment: Sunrise of Christ’s Liberating Justice,” Anglican Theological Review 89, no. 4 (Fall 2007): 565-576, accessed June 20, 2018, http://www.liberty.edu.bid.


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